Data Frame in R | Beginning R Programming – Part 6

A Data frame, commonly known as a table, is one of the main objects in R that you will often use when working with data. Learn how to access a data frame’s rows and columns, and look up the structure of a data frame.

A data frame is a two-dimensional array
or to put simply a table data that is
tabled in two rows and columns makes it
easy to work with in R and means we can
store a mix of numeric,
categorical variables, and character strings
Data frame is one of the main objects you’ll
be working with in R so let’s get
ourselves familiar with it
So in our video on reading and writing data you
read in the income data set as a data frame
you can see a mix of data types
here and variable names
So data frame makes it easy to subset data in R as you
would’ve seen in our operations video
you can use conditions to extract
out something you might be interested in
So for example I might be interested in
extracting out the average income for
jobs that are you know above 90,000
So to do this I’ll just simply write “income”
and within my income data set I use the
dollar sign ($) to refer to the variable
that I’m interested in which is
“average income”
and I would like it to be greater than or equal to 19K
Now in our data frame income
We can refer to specific rows and or column names
inside the square brackets here
So here we are specifically referring to rows that meet
this condition we want to extract
all the rows where the average income value
in the row is greater than or equal to
the comma that kind of follows this
means that we can also extract at
the column level so you can basically
say within income
we can specify the rows
and we can specify the columns
So let’s just say I’m interested in the third row of the third column
So what I’m saying here is I would like the income
value that sits at Row 3 of the
“average.income” column
which is the third column
and if we run this you can see it has
extracted the relevant value
The same goes for meeting a condition
So we just
specified the rows we want before the
comma and if we want to specify any
columns we do this after the comma
we can also extract a range of rows and columns
in our data set so for example I might
want rows one to three
and I only want
the values from columns one to two of income
Now we can see the rows one to three
showing and only columns one to two
of those rows
In a data frame we
can easily add or remove columns too
so, for example, to add a column we simply
type “income” use this dollar sign ($) to add
a variable we just call it “new.column”
and I’m just going to add a bunch of “NA”
missing values to that just for the
quick demonstration
Let’s have a look at this
okay cool and now to remove a
column we follow similar kind of command here
So “income” and I want to kind of get rid of the
fourth column, so gonna -4 here
which is the lost column in our data set
let’s have a look
okay great
Now another useful command in R
is STR or what we call structure
So if we look at the structure of “income”
for example
So here we can see our numerical or character
or categorical variables we can see how
many characters are you know categories
or factor levels there are
How many rows
of data we have to work with and the like
So now that you’re familiar with data frames
we’ll move on to vectors in the next video

Data Set
How to Install R

Part 7: 
Working with Vectors in R

Part 5: 
Read and Write Data in R

Full Series:
Beginning R Programming

More Data Science Material:
[Video] Event Log Mining with R
[Blog] Natural Language Processing with R Programming Books
[Blog] 101 Machine Learning Algorithms for Data Science
[Blog] 8 Data Science Conferences to Attend in 2020


Rebecca Merrett
About The Author
- Rebecca holds a bachelor’s degree of information and media from the University of Technology Sydney and a post graduate diploma in mathematics and statistics from the University of Southern Queensland. She has a background in technical writing for games dev and has written for tech publications.


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